(转)LaTex 简明教程

贡献者:https://github.com/pnathan

英文原文:https://github.com/adambard/learnxinyminutes-docs/blob/master/latex.html.markdown

中文原文:https://github.com/adambard/learnxinyminutes-docs/blob/master/zh-cn/latex-cn.html.markdown

官方网站:https://learnxinyminutes.com/


% All comment lines start with %
% There are no multi-line comments

% LaTeX is NOT a "What You See Is What You Get" word processing software like
% MS Word, or OpenOffice Writer

% Every LaTeX command starts with a backslash ()

% LaTeX documents start with a defining the type of document it's compiling
% Other document types include book, report, presentations, etc.
% The options for the document appear in the [] brackets. In this case
% it specifies we want to use 12pt font.
documentclass[12pt]{article}

% Next we define the packages the document uses.
% If you want to include graphics, colored text, or
% source code from another language file into your document, 
% you need to enhance the capabilities of LaTeX. This is done by adding packages. 
% I'm going to include the float and caption packages for figures
% and hyperref package for hyperlinks
usepackage{caption}
usepackage{float}
usepackage{hyperref}

% We can define some other document properties too!
author{Chaitanya Krishna Ande, Colton Kohnke, Sricharan Chiruvolu & \
Svetlana Golubeva}
date{today}
title{Learn LaTeX hspace{1pt} in Y Minutes!}

% Now we're ready to begin the document
% Everything before this line is called "The Preamble"
begin{document} 
% if we set the author, date, title fields, we can have LaTeX 
% create a title page for us.
maketitle

% If we have sections, we can create table of contents. We have to compile our
% document twice to make it appear in right order.
% It is a good practice to separate the table of contents form the body of the 
% document. To do so we use newpage command
newpage
tableofcontents

newpage

% Most research papers have abstract, you can use the predefined commands for this.
% This should appear in its logical order, therefore, after the top matter,
% but before the main sections of the body. 
% This command is available in the document classes article and report.
begin{abstract}
 LaTeX hspace{1pt} documentation written as LaTeX! How novel and totally not
 my idea!
end{abstract}

% Section commands are intuitive. 
% All the titles of the sections are added automatically to the table of contents.
section{Introduction}
Hello, my name is Colton and together we're going to explore LaTeX!

section{Another section}
This is the text for another section. I think it needs a subsection.

subsection{This is a subsection} % Subsections are also intuitive.
I think we need another one

subsubsection{Pythagoras}
Much better now.
label{subsec:pythagoras}

% By using the asterisk we can suppress LaTeX's inbuilt numbering.
% This works for other LaTeX commands as well. 
section*{This is an unnumbered section} 
However not all sections have to be numbered!

section{Some Text notes}
%section{Spacing} % Need to add more information about space intervals
LaTeX hspace{1pt} is generally pretty good about placing text where it should
go. If 
a line \ needs \ to \ break \ you add textbackslashtextbackslash 
hspace{1pt} to the source code. \ 

section{Lists}
Lists are one of the easiest things to create in LaTeX! I need to go shopping
tomorrow, so let's make a grocery list.
begin{enumerate} % This creates an "enumerate" environment.
  % item tells the enumerate to increment
  item Salad.
  item 27 watermelon.
  item A single jackrabbit.
  % we can even override the item number by using []
  item[how many?] Medium sized squirt guns.

  Not a list item, but still part of the enumerate.

end{enumerate} % All environments must have an end.

section{Math}

One of the primary uses for LaTeX hspace{1pt} is to produce academic articles
or technical papers. Usually in the realm of math and science. As such, 
we need to be able to add special symbols to our paper! \

Math has many symbols, far beyond what you can find on a keyboard;
Set and relation symbols, arrows, operators, and Greek letters to name a few.\

Sets and relations play a vital role in many mathematical research papers.
Here's how you state all x that belong to X, $forall$ x $in$ X. \
% Notice how I needed to add $ signs before and after the symbols. This is 
% because when writing, we are in text-mode. 
% However, the math symbols only exist in math-mode. 
% We can enter math-mode from text mode with the $ signs.
% The opposite also holds true. Variable can also be rendered in math-mode.
% We can also enter math mode with []

[a^2 + b^2 = c^2 ]

My favorite Greek letter is $xi$. I also like $beta$, $gamma$ and $sigma$.
I haven't found a Greek letter yet that LaTeX hspace{1pt} doesn't know
about! \

Operators are essential parts of a mathematical document: 
trigonometric functions ($sin$, $cos$, $tan$), 
logarithms and exponentials ($log$, $exp$), 
limits ($lim$), etc. 
have per-defined LaTeX commands. 
Let's write an equation to see how it's done: 
$cos(2theta) = cos^{2}(theta) - sin^{2}(theta)$ \

Fractions (Numerator-denominators) can be written in these forms:

% 10 / 7
$$ ^{10}/_{7} $$

% Relatively complex fractions can be written as
% frac{numerator}{denominator}
$$ frac{n!}{k!(n - k)!} $$ \

We can also insert equations in an ``equation environment''.

% Display math with the equation 'environment'
begin{equation} % enters math-mode
    c^2 = a^2 + b^2.
    label{eq:pythagoras} % for referencing
end{equation} % all begin statements must have an end statement

We can then reference our new equation! 
Eqn.~ref{eq:pythagoras} is also known as the Pythagoras Theorem which is also
the subject of Sec.~ref{subsec:pythagoras}. A lot of things can be labeled: 
figures, equations, sections, etc.

Summations and Integrals are written with sum and int commands:

% Some LaTeX compilers will complain if there are blank lines
% In an equation environment.
begin{equation} 
  sum_{i=0}^{5} f_{i}
end{equation} 
begin{equation} 
  int_{0}^{infty} mathrm{e}^{-x} mathrm{d}x
end{equation} 

section{Figures}

Let's insert a Figure. Figure placement can get a little tricky. 
I definitely have to lookup the placement options each time.

begin{figure}[H] % H here denoted the placement option. 
    centering % centers the figure on the page
    % Inserts a figure scaled to 0.8 the width of the page.
    %includegraphics[width=0.8linewidth]{right-triangle.png} 
    % Commented out for compilation purposes. Please use your imagination.
    caption{Right triangle with sides $a$, $b$, $c$}
    label{fig:right-triangle}
end{figure}

subsection{Table}
We can also insert Tables in the same way as figures.

begin{table}[H]
  caption{Caption for the Table.}
  % the {} arguments below describe how each row of the table is drawn.
  % Again, I have to look these up. Each. And. Every. Time.
  begin{tabular}{c|cc} 
    Number &  Last Name & First Name \ % Column rows are separated by &
    hline % a horizontal line
    1 & Biggus & Dickus \
    2 & Monty & Python
  end{tabular}
end{table}

section{Getting LaTeX hspace{1pt} to not compile something (i.e. Source Code)}
Let's say we want to include some code into our LaTeX hspace{1pt} document,
we would then need LaTeX hspace{1pt} to not try and interpret that text and
instead just print it to the document. We do this with a verbatim 
environment. 

% There are other packages that exist (i.e. minty, lstlisting, etc.)
% but verbatim is the bare-bones basic one.
begin{verbatim} 
  print("Hello World!")
  a%b; % look! We can use % signs in verbatim. 
  random = 4; #decided by fair random dice roll
end{verbatim}

section{Compiling} 

By now you're probably wondering how to compile this fabulous document 
and look at the glorious glory that is a LaTeX hspace{1pt} pdf.
(yes, this document actually does compile). \
Getting to the final document using LaTeX hspace{1pt} consists of the following 
steps:
  begin{enumerate}
    item Write the document in plain text (the ``source code'').
    item Compile source code to produce a pdf. 
     The compilation step looks like this (in Linux): \
     begin{verbatim} 
        > pdflatex learn-latex.tex
     end{verbatim}
  end{enumerate}

A number of LaTeX hspace{1pt}editors combine both Step 1 and Step 2 in the 
same piece of software. So, you get to see Step 1, but not Step 2 completely.
Step 2 is still happening behind the scenesfootnote{In cases, where you use
references (like Eqn.~ref{eq:pythagoras}), you may need to run Step 2
multiple times, to generate an intermediary *.aux file.}.
% Also, this is how you add footnotes to your document!

You write all your formatting information in plain text in Step 1.
The compilation part in Step 2 takes care of producing the document in the
format you defined in Step 1.

section{Hyperlinks}
We can also insert hyperlinks in our document. To do so we need to include the
package hyperref into preamble with the command:
begin{verbatim} 
    usepackage{hyperref}
end{verbatim}

There exists two main types of links: visible URL \
url{https://learnxinyminutes.com/docs/latex/}, or  
href{https://learnxinyminutes.com/docs/latex/}{shadowed by text}
% You can not add extra-spaces or special symbols into shadowing text since it 
% will cause mistakes during the compilation

This package also produces list of thumbnails in the output pdf document and 
active links in the table of contents.

section{End}

That's all for now!

% Most often, you would want to have a references section in your document.
% The easiest way to set this up would be by using the bibliography section
begin{thebibliography}{1}
  % similar to other lists, the bibitem command can be used to list items
  % each entry can then be cited directly in the body of the text
  bibitem{latexwiki} The amazing LaTeX hspace{1pt} wikibook: {em 
https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/LaTeX
  bibitem{latextutorial} An actual tutorial: {em http://www.latex-tutorial.com}
end{thebibliography}

% end the document
end{document}

More on LaTeX

  1. The amazing LaTeX wikibook: https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/LaTeX
  2. An actual tutorial: http://www.latex-tutorial.com/

作者: YanWen

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